Early Settlers of AugustaMay 1968 Vol V #2 page 49
Augusta is really older than Savannah. A TRADING POST WAS ESTABLISHED HERE BEFORE 1700. THE CITY WAS SURVEYED AND LAND LAID OUT IN THE SUMMER OF 1737. HOUSE LOTS IN THE TOWN WERE 1 ACRE IN SIZE, AND FARM LOTS OF 60 ACRES EACH SURROUNDED THE TOWN. The 1744 records are among the earliest still in existence. The Colony was governed from Savannah, by a Board of Trustees. Then it consisted of two "counties," North and South. Later it was put in the hands of Governors and divided into parishes in 1758. According to the Petitions, people "Squatted", on the land, built houses etc., then got their grants.
|Petitions for Land Augusta Area 1744-1773|
|Thomas GOODALE||3-23-1744||License to operate “Victualling House,” in Augusta|
|Richard RATTOON||4-18-1745||50 acres in township of Augusta||complains that Joseph OAKS has kept, for some time, a very disorderly victualling house, without a license. “In defiance of all authority.”|
|Daniel DOUROUZEAUX||2-20-1745-6||500 acres near Augusta||part of which is the Island called New Savannah, whiere he has been settled for three years.|
|William BEARFUTT & Anthony GRUBBS||11-22-1746||Owned a Corn Mill||Petition for land deferred until Capt. Kent returns from Frederika.|
|Lachlan McBEAN||1-27-1747||Having lost many cattle and horses in violent inundation, on Nov. 8 last, wishes to exchange his land for an equal number of acres on Quiohoakee Cr., near Uchee Old Town. (Kiokee Creek)|
|Lachlan McBEAN||11-8-1747||200 acres for his two natural sons, William and John, at Tinker's Creek near Augusta.|
|Peter SHEPERD||4-22-1747||500 acres on an island, 16 mi., above Augusta, adj. Uchee Old Field.|
|Thomas GOODALE||6-30-1747||100 acres at Kenyon Cr., to erect a mill for grinding corn, at a reasonable toll.||States he was one of the first settlers in Augusta area, “and has cleared so much of the said 500 acres that he is able to raise English Wheat and other grain in large amounts.” If he had a mill, he could, in a few years supply the whole colony with “Flower.” much cheaper than it can be brought in from the Northern Provinces. Wishes a 21 year lease, renewable each 7 years, at annual rental of 1 sterling.(Has L w/line-for Eng currency pound in front of 1)|
|John BAXTER||9-4-1747||Pet. for Town Lot $15, in Augusta.|
|Ambrose BARR||9-4-1747||pet. for Town Lot #14 (50 acres)||Served under Capt. Roger LACY|
|Richard LEE||9-4-1747||Pet. for Town Lot #27 (60 acres)|
|Thomas ROSS||9-23-1747||200 acres on Mill Cr. near Augusta; has dwelt in Colony “near eleven years.”||Which would make him one of first settlers in Augusta Town|
|John ATHERTON||10-22-1747||200 acres adj. David PEPPER||deferred until he could get a certificate of good behaviour from City of Augusta.|
|Joseph OAKES||10-23-1747||500 acres on Crooked Beaver Dam near Augusta.||Has lived here 3 years, cultivated land, erected buildings.|
|Benjamin GOLDWYER||11-23-1747||wishes 50 acres near Augusta.||“A sober, industrious yung man, a carpenter,”|
|Richard JOHNSTON||11-23-1747||500 acres, 400 on an island, 5 mi. above Little River on the main fronting said island|
|William CLARKE||10-29-1748||Lot #16; 50 acres in Augusta.|
|John KENNEDY||1-30-1748||500 acres near Augusta||(Board decided to allot him 200 acres, “as he is of middling ability.”|
|Patrick BROWN||10-29-1748||pet. 500 acres on Savannah R., at south end of place called Witherington’s Bluff 30 mi. below Augusta,||Storekeeper and Indian Trader,Intends to raise indigo.|
|Patrick CLARKE||10-29-1748||300 acres on a Great Swamp||4 mi. above a place called “Sot’s Hole,” above Augusta.|
|William CLEMENT||11-17-1748||300 acres adj. John KENNEDY, in Township of Augusta.|
|Richard JONES||11-29-1748||200 acres. Adj. Isaac BARKSDALE near Uchee Island.|
|Peter SHEPHERD||1-1-1749||When he ask for 500 acres on Uchee Island, it was found that Isaac BARKSDALE already had it. SHEPHERD renewed his pet. for a like amount at New Savannah, near DEROUZEAUX.|
|William Gray||1-9-1749||500 acres at New Savannah, stating that he had been in possession of this land for 7 years, by consent of Gen’l OGLETHORPE.||Board decided that the consent of OGLETHORPE “was as good a Title as we could give him”|
|James FRAZER||7-26-1749||Granted 2 a., in Town Commons of Augusta,||for building a church, and a burial place for the dead. Money for building raised by public Subscrip|
|Georgia Pioneers August 1968 Vol V #3|
|Thomas ELLIS||9-8-1749||A surveyor, ordered to Augusta to lay out several 50 acre lots for soldiers disbanded by Oglethorpe, who desired settle there.James FRAZER requested to supply them with year’s allowance.|
|Lachlan McGILLIVARY||11-6-1749||Indian Trader, he petitions for 100 acres on Kenyon Creek, in order to build a grist mill.|
|John ETHERTON||1-1-1750||Lot #25 in Augusta|
|William WATKINS||1-1-1750||Lot #35 in Augusta|
|Thomas BOSSETT, Sr.||3-2-1750||Late of Va, a planter, ask for 500 acres for self and 2 sons, at a place called Coat’s Neck, above Augusta, a mile from William GRAY|
|(A request from inhabitants of Augusta, that since Capt. KIRK had gone, they were witout a conservator of the peace, and in dire need of one.)|
|James FRAZER||3-3-1750||Elected conservator of Peace|
|(After many complaints from the people of Augusta, for want of a Ferry, the Board appoints::|
|John GOLDWIRE||4-4-1750||Lately a constable of the district|
|George GALPHIN||9-15-1750||A trader at the Cowetas, in the lower Creek Nation, whose family has for some years resided at Silver Bluff S.C. desires to become a freeholder in Ga. asks for 500 acres across Savannah River. frm. Silver Bluff, promised him by Oglethorpe|
|Joe RAE||12-7-1752||In behalf of Wm. McDONALD, who had lived in Augusta for 6 years, req. 500 acres on Savannah River, a mild above King Ceek.||Board agreed, providing it did not interfere with German settlement on Briar Creek (New Gottingen)|
|George GALPHIN & John PETTIGREW||9-26-1750||Petition for office of Constable in the Creek Nation, position opened by death of present holder, William A. FINLEY.||Board refuses, on grounds that they suspect GALPHIN of trying to monopolize trade with Indians out of Augusta.|
|John PARIS||2-7-1753||Having been given 250 acres on Little Cayooka (Kiokee) Creek, wishes to exchange it for 250 acres on Savannah, below Butler’s Creek|
|Richard BENISON||2-7-1753||John PARIS’ bro-in-law, has 9 working hands, desires 500 acres at mouth of Spirit Creek|
|Christian FOLBRIGHT||8-8-1753||4—acres above Butler’s Creek, 8 miles below Augusta.|
|(Board having received complaints from James FRAZER, about the lack of a surveyor)”|
|Edward BARNARD||Aug 1753||Appointed Government surveyor|
|John FITCH||11-8-1753||100 acres on branch of Briar Creek, where an Indian Town formerly stood.|
|Edward GERMANY||11-8-1753||200 acres on back of Uchee Island, near Uchee Old Fields, 12 miles above Augusta.|
|Samuel GANDY||2-5-1754||Many years an inhabitant of desires Lot #42 (50 acres) and a 50 acre adj. back of said lot.|
|James MATTHEWS||4-5-1754||Resident of Augusta 7 years for 200 acres on Sope Creek, 2 miles from mouth, at Savannah River|
|Alexander GERMANY||4-5-1754||200 acres on N. Branch of Great Cayooka Creek., 25 miles above Augusta, 10 miles from Savannah River.|
|(Capt. John REYNOLDS appointed Governor of Colony of Ga. when system of trusteeship was abandoned. S Seal prepared for his use was significantly engraved on reverse side with man holding skein of silk.)|
|James FRAZIER & John RAE, Esq.||Nov. 1754||Apptd. Conservators of the Peace in Augusta|
|(System of fees and fines drawn up: For recovering debts from 40’s to 10 pounds. Taking affidavit, 1 s. Taking Bail, 1 s., 4 p. Warrant, 1 s. For an arrest (Prisoners had to be taken to Savannah for trial), 1 s. For Milage, 2 p. per mile. Lodging a prisoner in Augusta, 6 p. per night. Expenses on road to Savannah, 6 p. per day. Governor Reynolds ordered justices in Augusta to hold court in that town, since it was “expensive and wasteful.” bringing petty cases to Savannah): February 1755|
|Ralph KILGORE||Apr. 1755||Wife, 1 child: 250 acres on mouth of Cayoka 14 mi. above Augusta|
|James JARVIS||5-10-1755||Presents acct. for bringing prisoner frm. Augusta, 6 pounds 2 s. Pet. for Lot #19, in Augusta|
|Nicholas MURPHY||5-10-1755||Petition for Lot #21 in Augusta.|
|Samuel VENNING||5-23-1755||Presents acct. for transporting 3 prisoners from Augusta. Board argued him down from 24 lbs, 6 s. to 20 lbs. 4 s.|
|(Most of settlers during the summer petitioned for lands on the costal islands, on Newport River, in the newly created town of “Hardwicke,” and in the Halifax section of Briar Creek).|
|Ralph KILGORE||Aug. 1755||Ask for 100 acres 20 miles above Augusta|
|Patrick CLARK||Aug. 1755||50 acres farm land in Augusta dist.,||1 acre lot in town.|
|Robert DIXON||Aug. 1755||Lot. #12 in Augusta|
|Lachlan McILLIVARY||8-6-1755||of Augusta, wishes Lot #26, in town of Hardwicke.|
(Contributed by Mrs. F.F. Baker, Thomson, Georgia in 1968
(Shared by Ms. Gerry Hill-Albany Ga. in 2006 from copies bought by Lally Jones Benknoski)
(John Goldwire- born 1714- Austria Salsburger emigrants to the colony
of Georgia in the 1740s Died 15-26 Feb 1775 Mt Pleasant, St Matthews
Parish, Ga (Later Effingham) Buried Family Homeplace married Sarah Retford
Potter b a 1719 England a Dec 1739 Savannah, Chatham, Ga
Children John b 7 Oct 1744 Palachlas, SC, never married-a Bap qtist
Minister James L b 14 Apr 1747 Augusta, St Paul’s Parish, Ga, married Sarah
King dtr of Wm.
Sarah d 9 Dec 1777 Effingham Co Ga m Wm King.
John Goldwire with his brother, Benjamin, settled in Christ Church Parish (Savannah) on first coming to Georgia. The daughter Sarah was born in Savannah, The next two or three years were spent in South Carolina, thence he moved to Augusta. where the son James was born, then he settled in St. Matthews Parish. He was appointed Assistant Judge of the General Court for the District of Ebenezer, June 5, 1759. On Nov. 4, 1760, he was appointed Jastice of Peace, St. Matthews Parish, and re-appointed Dec. 18, 1765. He and his family were members of Ebenezer Church. John Goldwire died in 1775, and his will was probated soon after and is of record in the Colonial records of the state. Among the bequests was one of 300 acres in St. Matthews Parish granted him May 7, 1771; this was willed to his daughter, Mrs. King. She and her husband, John King, sold this, property March 5, 1802, to Gross Scruggs of Effingham County, identifying it in the deed as the same property willed to her, etc.
\\\\\\\\\\\\John Goldwire, the son, apparently was never married. He was appointed Magistrate of St. Mathews Parish, July 2, 1776. In August, 1782, was\\\\\\\\\ adjudged guilty of treason and declared ineligible to vote or hold any office in Georgia for three years after the war; this was reduced to \\\\\\\amercement August 3, 1782, by him paying 12% penalty on all he owned. \\\\\\\\\\
Forsooth, forshame. This man baptised and ordained my 4th grgranpa, Moses Westberry.
In July, 1783, his request for relief was denied. He apparently had
with the Tories during the time they had overrun Effingham County.
a deed of gift to his nephew, James King, Dec. 26, 1812, for all his
slaves, cattle, household goods, etc., (deed book "G", page 208, Effingham
County). Among the tracts of land was a 100-acre tract granted to him
John Goldwire, Jr., June 16, 1766.
Brother of Benjamin. Age 19; son in law of Robt. Potter. Embarked 15 June 1733; arrived in the Georgia Colony 29 Aug. 1733. Lot 153 in Savannah. Run away to Carolina Aug. 1742.)
(George Galphin b a 1709 Antrim, North Ireland died 2 Dec 1780 Silver
Records indicate George Galphin entered Charlestown as a poor immigrant in 1737. He left behind a widowed mother, a young brother of whom little more is heard, four younger sisters, and a new wife in North Ireland. Evidently he was of Scotch-Irish lineage, though the exact line has not yet been found. His father was a poor linen weaver. He immediately entered the lucrative Indian Trade. No record of his exact date of entry of the ship bringing him in has yet been found. But by 1741, just four years, he was already recognized as a trader working the Lower Creek towns along the Chattahoochee River, with four assistant traders and a string of 25 pack-horses. Listed in the collections of the Georgia Historical Society, II, Pages 123,124. In all such references he is listed as an associate of Brown and Rae, the wealthy and powerful company at Augusta which had a virtual monopoly on the lucrative trade. A closer study of the men who came in about the same time, and from the same place in North Ireland has not really been made. Among those from Antrim or Armaugh are John Rae and his older brother, already a partner in Augusta, and James Adair who traded and later wrote the highly rated "History of the American Indians" published in London in 1775 with encouragement from Galphin. Probably he was personally recruited by the Rae family. George Galphin, though semiliterate, was very intelligent, as well as daring, apparently fearless, shrewd and very honest in matters of business. He was a quick learner, picking up several dialects of the Creeks so that he soon acted as an interpreter and translator, though never listed simply as a "linguister" (interpreter) in documents, who served in those capacities but might be illiterate and a non-trader. Historic document files in both South Carolina and Georgia are widely available revealing the services he rendered the colonies by acting as a diplomat among the Creeks, and sometimes the Cherokees. In1780 he was taken prisoner by the British and faced execution in Savannah, but was saved by his best friend, fellow trader and Loyalist Lachlan McGillivray. His death date is listed in "The Galphin Bible Family Pages" available from the Georgia Historical Society at Savannah and the South Carolina Historical Society at Charleston. This document also lists the family of his only white son, Thomas Galphin, and is certainly from that family. It also gives son Thomas, his two wives, and their children, but not Thomas' mother. The Beech Island Historical Society and the archaeologists at the Savannah River Site believe that the grave of George Galphin was probably in a location near his home at Silver Bluff. Some members of the Aiken/Barnwell Genealogy Society believe that Galphin was indeed buried somewhere on his grounds, and have heard rumors passed down from some older residents of the area that there was much resentment against Galphin among his slaves, who destroyed all signs of any marker which might have remained there and may even have destroyed his actual remains. The most helpful document in researching this entire family is his voluminous "Will of George Galphin with three codicils, Old Estate Book 14 - 25, Probate Court Abbeville County Courthouse, Abbeville, S.C. No researcher of this family should settle for an abbreviated version because often people misread old documents, or bring their prejudices to their interpretation. The SCDAH will provide a full file with all of the will, codicils, inventory, and report of the executors from microfilm. The full exact text of these documents is included in this book. [Primary Resources: South Carolina Dept. of Archives and History, Columbia, S.C.. South Carolina Historical Society Library and Archives, Charleston, S.C., South Carolinian Library at Univ. of S.C., Columbia, S.C. , Georgia Dept. of Archives and History, Atlanta, GA , Georgia Historical Society Library and Archives, Savannah, GA., Augusta Genealogy Society Files, Augusta, GA, Beech Island Historical Society Files, Beech Island, S.C.,Edgefield Genealogy Society Research Library, Edgefield, S.C., U.S.Censuses, S.C. Edgefield District/County, Orangeburgh District, Barnwell District/County, U.S.Censuses, GA, Burke County, Jefferson County, Richmond County, Washington County, Early Settlers of Georgia, Early Settlers of South Carolina, Early Settlers of North Carolina CDs., Master's Thesis of John Sheftall, University of Virginia and conversations with Mr. Sheftall. Letters and Records of Benjamin Hawkins, Unpublished letters of Timothy Barnard. Records and files of Jefferson County Historical Society Records and files of Burke County Historical Society]
HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS GEORGIA D. A. R.
Deed Book C-1791-92
GALPHIN, GEORGE---Page 63---Aug. 19, 1777, of Silver Bluff, S. C. To Robt. Jones of Richmond Co., 350 actres on Savannah River ( the dower of Ellinor Stewart, wid. during her natural life exceptd] adj. Nehemiah Wade and Jacob Beall, granted John Stewart, sold by Mathew Roache, provst gen'l to Geo Galphin 1769. Test: W. Dunbar, Abraham Jones.
CROSSLE, GEORGE & HENRY--Page 409---Sept 20, 1790. To Daniel McMurphy,
Richmond County, 200 acres on Savannah River Granville Co., S. C. orig. granted Richard Fields 1758, sold to Owen David Jun 4, 1762, to Geo. Galphin Sep. 29, 1772, also 150 acres in St. George Parish, Ga., granted John Fryear 1765, sold to Geo. Galphin 1773, and by the last will of Geo. Galphin devised to said Geo. and Henry Crossle Test: Robt. Faris, N. Bush. GEORGIA PASSPORTS
Page 374, 20. A trader by the name of George Galphin had established a trading-post on Ogeechee River " which probably antedates the coming of Oglethorpe to Georgia." It was called Galphinton and was also known as Ogeechee Town. After Louisville was settled, some ten miles to the northwest, it was commonly designated as Old Town to distinguish it from NewTown, a name which residents of the locality gave to the future capital of Georgia. Lucian Lamar Knight, Georgia's Landmarks, Memorials and Legends.
GALPHIN, GEORGE-BOX 40, PACK 898:
Will dated April 6, 1776. Exrs: James Parsons, John Graham, Lauchlin McGillvery, Esq., John Parkinson Merc. Wit: Michael Meyer, John Sturzenegger, David Zubly. Ment: Lived in 96 Dist. "Will that my mulatto girl named Barbara be free. I give to my mulatto girls Rachael and Betsy (daughters of a mulatto woman named Sapho) their freedom. Give to my halfbreed Indian girl, Rose (daughter of Nitehuckey) her freedom. I Give to Thomas Galphin, son of Rachel Dupee, and his sister, Cowpen, in Ogechee, horses, cattle, etc. Also grist mill and saw mill situated on the north side of Town Creek. Also land from Mr. Shaw's lower line upon Savannah River at the Spanish Cutoff, down the said river to Mr. McGilvery's lower line, containing about 1300 acres in the Province of Georgia. Also 350 acres of land upon Ogechee, which I bought of Patrick Dennison. Give to Martha Galphin, daughter of Rachel Dupee, 500 acres of land above Augusta, in Georgia. Also cattle, etc. at Ogechee. Give to George, son of Metawney (an Indian Woman), stock of cattle with his own, his sister Judith's and brother John's mark and brand. Also the old brick house, in S. C., land above the Spanish Cutoff on Savannah River in Georgia. Give to John, son of Metawney, cattle with his own, his sister Judith's and brother George's mark. Also land upon Ogechee, in Georgia, called the Old Town. Give unto Judith, daughter of Metawney, and dwelling at Silver Bluff, where she now lives, in S. C. Give unto Barbara, daughter of Rose, decd., land at Silver Bluff in S. C. Give unto Thomas slaves, etc. Give to Daivid Holmes land in Georgia. Give to Judith Galphin, ny sister, 150 pounds sterling. I leave Catherine Galphin, living in Ireland, 150 pounds sterling. To my sister, Margaret Holmes, 50 pounds sterling. To each of her children, now living in lreland, 50 pounds sterling. To her son Robert, now living here, 50 pounds sterling. Give to Mrs. Taylor 50 pounds sterling, etc. To my cousin George Rankin in Ireland, 70 pounds sterling, to him or his children. Leave to George Nowlan 50 pounds sterling. I leave to my Aunt Lennard's daughter in Ireland, to her and her children, 50 pounds sterling. Leave to my cousin John Trotter, 50 pounds, to him and his children. I leave to Rachel [ daughter to Saplio) two negro men and two negro women to be bought out of the first ship that comes in with negroes. Give to Thomas, son of Rachel Dupee, and his children to be maintained and schooled on the plantation. Leave to Betsey Callwell daughter of Mary Callwell, land at the Three Runs, at the Old Stomp, above Tims Branch. Also 50 pounds Carolina currency. I Ieave to all the poor widows and fatherless children within thirty miles of where I live in the Provinces of South Carolina and Georgia 50 pounds sterling. I leave 50 pounds sterling to be shared among the poor of Eneskilling and 50 pounds sterling to be shared among the poor of Amagh in Ireland. Leave to Timothy Barnard 200 pounds sterling. Leave to all the orphan children I brought up10 pounds sterling each and Billey Brown to be bound out to a trade. I leave John McQueen and Alexander his brother, each a good riding horse. Leave to Nir. Netherclif and his wife each a ring. Leave to Mr. and Mrs. Wylly each a ring. Leave to their daughter Suckv Wylly 50 pounds. Leave to Mrs. Campbell a ring. Leave to Mr. Carlan a ring. Leave to Mrs. Fraisier a ring. Leave to Mr. Newman a ring. Give to the widow Atkins, 20 pounds sterling. To her son William a riding horse. Give to Parson Seymour and his wife, each a ring. Give to George Parsons, a likely negro boy to be bought him out of the first ship that comes in. Leave to Quintin Tooler 500 acres of ceded land and to all the rest of mv Cousin Toolers [men and women] each a ring. I leave my sister Young, in Ireland, 50 pounds sterling, and to each of her children 50 pounds. Give to Clotworthv Robson 500 acres, to his and his heirs. Give to my sister Martha, wife of William Crossley. slaves, etc.
William Crosley & John Newman, together with George Galphin settled what was known as Silver Bluff on the Savannah River, in Aiken Co., S.C., many years prior to the Revolutionary War.
The fame of the village of Cofachiqui spread all over the land. As DeSoto came up from Florida into Georgia, the Indians told him of a fabulous country to the north ruled by a beautiful young Indian queen and rich in gold, silver, and pearls. He turned aside from his march inland and the Indians guided him to the village of Cofachiqui, on the opposite bank of the Savannah River. The Indian emissaries crossed the river to greet the Spaniards; and, upon learning that the white man came in peace, they returned to so inform their queen who went herself to meet the visitors. She crossed the Savannah accompanied by emissaries and a procession of canoes filled with Indians. She herself had eight female attendants. She offered her own house for DeSoto, half the village for his officers, and wigwams for his men. She also promised to provide food, rafts, and canoes to transport the army across the river. DeSoto and his men were both surprised and charmed to find such dignity, grace, intelligence, politeness and hospitality in a savage in the wilderness. The queen presented DeSoto with a long string of pearls from around her neck. In return he gave her a ring from his own finger as a token of peace and friendship. DeSoto found that the gold and silver substance brought to him by the Indians, when he inquired about the gold and silver wealth, crumbled in his hands like dry earth. His search for gold and silver in the bed of the Savannah and the bluffs over the river yielded no wealth. He did find there a sort of mausoleum adomed with great quantities of pearls of every size. Mr. William Smoak says in an article written for the Aiken Centennial that in his research he found that they obtained fourteen bushels of pearls. The Spaniards also found a dagger and several coats of mail. The Indians told DeSoto that, some years before, white men had come up from the coast and visited their village and some had become sick and died there. The Spaniards decided that these men had been Ayllon and his followers.
DeSoto, after a long sojourn in this fertile, healthy region, failing to find the wealth for which he was searching, departed from the queen's country, taking her with him as a captive to guide him on up the river into the mountains where he hoped to find the precious metal. The Spaniards, like the one-eyed giant, Poly- phemus, had an eye only for riches and material wealth. Because of their lust for gold, they missed the more valuable things that were here-matchless climate, fertility and beauty of the region; and so they missed the opportunity of settlement and development of this wonderful new land.
Dr. Henry Woodward visited the Indians at Cofachiqui shortly after the settlement of Charleston by the English. Dr. Woodward formed an alliance with the "emperor" of Cofachiqui and other caciques in the surrounding territory. He established trade with the Indians, visiting the Indians at Silver Bluff (Cofachiqui) and more than once helping to carry out negotiations with them. Later the Indians at Silver Bluff were driven out of South Carolina by the Shawnees, from whom the Savannah got its name.
About 1735, an Irishman, George Galphin, established a trading post on the ruins of the Indian town of Cofachiqui, and he is credited with naming it Silver Bluff. He built there the first brick home built in what is now Aiken County. This house was used as a fort during the Revolutionary War and changed hands many times during the war. George Galphin lived and died here. Mr. William Smoak tells this story of Mr. Galphin:
Mr. Galphin was visited by one of the principal Indian chiefs from beyond
the Savannah. The next morning they were walking around looking at the
buildings and improvements that had been made when the chief suddenly said,
"Mr. Galphin, me dream last night." "And what did my red brother dream?"
asked Mr. Galphin. "Me dream you give me a fine rifle." "If you dream you
must have it," and the rifle was given him at once. Next morning as they
were walking around again, Mr. Galphin suddenly said to the chief, "I dreamed
last night.,, "What you dream?" asked the chief. "I dreamed you gave me
your fine Chickasaw stallion." "If you dream 'um, you must have 'um," and
the horse was given to Mr. Galphin. The next morning it was the Chief's
turn, and he said, "Me dream last night." "And what did my red brother
dream?" "Me dream you gave me the red coat you wear and much calico;" and
the coat and the calico were handed over to the chief. The next morning
it was Mr. Galphin's turn. "I dreamed last night a very wonderful and beautiful
dream- Oh, it was such a happy dream," he said to the chief. "What my white
brother dream now?" asked the astonished chief, "I dreamed you gave me
ten miles around the Ogeechee Old Town." " Wugh," said the disgusted chief,
who was getting decidedly the worst of the game. "Wugh, if you dream 'um
you must have um, but I dream with you no more." Mr. Galphin did his part
in securing the peace and friendship of the Indians before the Revolutionary
War started; and, as there were forty thousand Indians living to the south
and west of Silver Bluff including ten thousand warriors, it was fortunate
for this section that he did. When the Revolutionary War broke out in South
Carolina a draft was ordered, and the men from this section began their
service under the command of General Bull. With the aid of the Tories,
most of Georgia and this section of South Carolina soon appeared under
control of the British. Fort Galphin was first under control of one side
and then the other. In order to maintain lines of communication between
army posts set up by the British, roads or "trails", as they were called,
were established. One of the most famous of these was the Old Tory Trail
which was not in existence until the British established it for military
purposes to hold the people of this section under their subjugation. It
connected Fort Moore at Hamburg and Fort Granby which had been established
by Lord Cornwallis on the south side of theCongaree River about where the
town of Cayce is now located. It was a much traveled road, and several
inns were established along the way to accommodate the British soldiers
and Tories. The Tory influence along this road was so strong that a band
of patriots engaged them in a battle at Deans Bridge in Aiken County in
order to curb their activities against the cause of Freedom. On this trail
the bones of many Tories have been dug up where they had been killed, thrown
aside, and buried. This trail ran from Hamburg through Beech Island, the
Franklin Community, the old Morgan Place, by Millbrook Church, across the
Levels, past Montmorenci, to somewhere near Dayton Toole's place on the
place Southern Railroad, now owned by Charles Venning, across the country
to the present Pine Log Bridge on the South Edisto River. The traveler
crossed the river on a pine log, and if he had a horse held the bridle
reigns while the horse swam across, From here the trail led to a point
on the North Edisto where the river could be forded, and on to Fort Granby.
("Ninty Years in Aiken County" by Gasper Loren Toole II)
Marbury's Digest of Georgia Laws. Land Acts.
Section 24, page 322. "And be it further exacted by the authority aforesaid, that William Glascock, George Walton, Daniel McMurphy, John Twiggs and George Well, Esqrs, or any three of them, be a board of commissioners for acting under this Act respecting the town of Augusta. Jan. 23, 1780. At the time, Augusta was made the seat of Government and was in need of rehabilitation. George Galphin lived at Silver Bluff on the Carolina side.
"The first census of the U.S. Heads of Families, S.C. 1790, shows:
Page 101. Orangeburg Dist. (South Part) "George Golphin" (Evidently Estate as no head or member of family is enumerated only "All other free persons. 5 slaves------------15")
"Rachel Golphin", with one son over 16 years and five slaves.
Excerpt from The Story of Wilkes Co. Georgia (Bowen)
The sale of the Wilkes county lands gave rise to a much talked of claim
against the U. S. government, which was called the Galphin Claim, and I
think it may interest people who live here now. When Gov. Wright sold Wilkes
county lands the Revolution had begun; and of course, as he was appointed
by King George, he was a Tory. So in selling the lands he favored Tory
and discriminated against Whigs. Also, when the money was paid in, he again
paid the Tories and refused to pay the Whigs. One of the Whig traders,
George Galphin by name, was a gentleman of high character and much intelligence,
living at a place still called Silver Bluff on the Carolina side of the
Savannah river, just below Augusta. George Galphin had a handsome brick
residence there which was still standing a few years ago, an antique old
mansion. He traded with the Indians for furs and skins and was very much
respected for honest dealings by the Creek Indians. He traded chiefly in
Georgia, though his home and large warehouses were in Carolina at Silver
Bluff. He was a strong Whig and had several times aided the state of Georgia,
when its resources were very low, and he also exerted his influence with
the Creeks to keep them from attacking the Wilkes settlers. His claim amounted
to about $50,000 which was audited and accepted as correct by the Governor,
though its payment was refused along with other Whig claims. When the Wilkes
lands came into possession of Georgia the claims of these traders were
recognized. The United States Government, however, took charge of all revolutionary
obligations of the States and among others of the Galphin claim.
For some reason or other, this debt both of justice and honor, though often presented, was unpaid until Taylor became President. By that time, it had come by inheritance to Col. John Milledge, the only son of Governor Milledge,(3) and also George W. Crawford, as attorney, had come into possession of a part. Crawford was in General Taylor's cabinet and when it was paid there was a great clamor, because he was interested. When the money was granted by Congress, a court of arbitration was necessary to settle the shares of persons interested, and Judge Garnett Andrews of Wilkes was on the court. They gave Col. Milledge a snug fortune. He was the only child of Gov. Milledge and had been the richest young man in Georgia of his time. I knew him well, one of the most agreeable and amiable men in the world, but with a most unexampled talent for getting rid of money. He had spent all his father left him when this windfall came to him and he set to work at once in the most systematic manner to spend this. But he had great luck of receiving fortunes, for after this Galphin money was all gone, he received and also spent two other fortunes. At last, when his aunt, Miss Polly Milledge, the Governor's sister, died she left her comfortable little property to the wife and children of her nephew. Capt. John Milledge, now State Librarian, one of the most polished gentlemen in Georgia, is the son of this Colonel John Milledge.
( 3) John MiIIedge was Governor of Georgia, 1802- 1806.
George Galphin. had descendants from his mulatto slave, Rose, whose Daughter Barbara married his accountant, Irishman William Holmes. Her 2 daughters lived in the area of Beech Island, S.C. near Silver Bluff where Galphin's main trading post was located. Both married white men of the area. His three half/breed Creek children by Tyger Clan Princess Metawney have been partially revealed. Details are missing of the Creek families of both George II and John. I have the details of Creek daughter Judith who married Galphin's chief assistant trader, William Dunbar and lived and died at their Steel Creek Home. I have plenty of data about the children of Galphin's white son, Thomas, as well as data about white daughter Martha who married Gov. John Milledge of Georgia but died without living offspring. I have no data at all about his two mulatto daughters by his slave Sappho or his half/breed daughter Rose by his Creek slave Nitechuckey.
George Galphin I came into South Carolina in 1739 and went to work immediately as an Indian Trader with others from Antrim, North Ireland. Because of his talents for languages and Creek style diplomacy, he soon married important Tyger Clan woman Metawney, with whom he had three children. At the same time he married, illegally, Bridget Shaw of an important trader's family at Savanno Town. She died shortly without children. He had children with several slave women including a Creek woman, Netchucky, and slaves Mulatto Rose who belonged to Moses Nunes, and Sapho. Then he took up thousands of acres for a plantation at Silver Bluff, South Carolina. About 1760 he built the first large brick house in the area and took his white French girl, Rachel Dupee, home there. She bore his two white heirs Thomas II and Martha. When the Revolutionary War came Galphin was firmly on the rebel side. He operated a clandestine spy ring and provided information to the South Carolina and Georgia committees of safety.
[Among the many traders interested in the cession of lands in 1773, was George Galphin, one of the influential and enterprising citizens of the early history of Georgia. His home and depot of supplies was at Silver Bluff, on the Savannah River, a few miles below Augusta, on the Carolina side. His friendship and business relations, however, were nearly all with Georgians and Georgia Indians. His trade extended to Charleston, Savannah, St. Augustine, Pensacola, and Mobile.
The claim of George Galphin for debts due him by Indians was not paid by Governor Wright, because Galphin sympathized with the colonists. War came on, the claim was transferred to the United States, and it was not until 1848 that the "Galphin Claim" was settled by the General Government, and paid to the heirs of the Indian trader of Silver Bluff.]
1n 1752, one trader, an Irishman named George Galphin, began acquiring land down river at Silver Bluff and later established a trading post there. From 1775-1777, English naturalist William Bartram visited Galphin at Silver Bluff and called it "a very celebrated place."
Galphin is said to have died five months before Lt. Col. Henry (Light
Horse Harry) Lee marched on Fort Galphin on May 21, 1781, and took the
fort with its store of powder, ball, small arms, liquor, salt, blankets
and other articles needed by the American forces to take Augusta from the
He had children by more than one marriage-and more than one other woman- both Irish and Indian.
Savannah News Vol I Georgia Gazette 1763-1770
(Contributed by Mrs. F.F. Baker, Thomson, Georgia in 1968
(Shared by Ms. Gerry Hill-Albany Ga. in 2006)
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